This pathology is a formation that appears as the body's defense against inflammation, infection, mechanical damage to the mucous membrane of the mouth, dental tissues. To prevent the spread of the process, the body forms a capsule with dense walls around the necrosis zone. In cysts, fluid (exudate) with pathogenic microorganisms and decay products accumulates. The diameter of the capsule - from a couple of millimeters to a centimeter or more. Small (less than 5 mm in diameter) are called granulomas. Granuloma, cystogranulomas, and cyst are stages of the inflammatory process in the bone tissue of the jaw.
The initial stages of the disease are often not detected.
The development of the disease can lead to serious consequences. The increase in size threatens fracture (especially of the lower jaw), loss of teeth involved in the inflammatory process, degeneration into a malignant tumor. Exacerbation of the disease leads to the development of periostitis, purulent abscess, or even osteomyelitis. If at this stage the patient does not receive qualified medical care, sepsis can begin. This is an extremely serious condition, characterized by the infection entering the bloodstream and its subsequent spread throughout the body.
Without adequate treatment, the jawbones begin to break down rapidly. This leads not only to the loss of one's tooth but also to the difficulty of further prosthetics - the impossibility of implant placement without bone augmentation.
Factors that can cause the development of cysts:
It does not matter for what reason the cyst developed. If you do not want to allow complications, you need to contact a dentist as soon as possible, who will diagnose and prescribe treatment
At an early stage, the cyst does not manifest itself. The primary symptom is discomfort when chewing solid food. As it develops, there may be a protrusion of bone tissue or fistulas on the gums in the area of the tip of the damaged tooth.
In which cases you need to go to the clinic immediately:
You should not ignore these symptoms if you want to carry out treatment without tooth extraction !!!
When the first symptoms appear, you should immediately seek the help of a dentist !!!
Treatment of dental cysts begins with diagnosis. And the best way to rule out or confirm the pathology is an X-ray. The degree of surgery and the success of therapy depends on how early the disease was detected, at what stage it is. Because cysts are a fairly common disease of the tissues of the jaw, dentists recommend that patients of all ages, lifestyles, oral conditions regularly visit the dentist's office and be examined by a specialist. If the patient observes signs of a cyst, it is necessary to address them to the doctor, without waiting for the next planned visit.
Surgery is prescribed if a therapeutic method is not possible.
For surgical treatment, the following indications:
Surgery is not performed if:
Modern dentistry uses three methods of treating jaw cysts:
Hemisection is a surgical operation to remove a tooth cyst, an injured root and part of the tooth itself. A crown is placed in place of the extracted tooth. This method is used when it is not possible to save the affected areas.
Cystotomy - removal of the anterior wall of the cyst, if the formation is large. If the growth has formed on the lower jaw, the base must be thinned for surgery. If the upper jaw is affected, the bony floor of the nasal cavity should be destroyed. After such an intervention, a long and difficult rehabilitation is required.
Cystectomy is a complex but most effective method of cyst removal.
It has a number of advantages:
Before cystectomy, the doctor examines the oral cavity. Neighboring teeth with a cyst are examined for electrical excitability, and in the absence of a reaction is treated.
X-rays provide information about the location of the roots and their location relative to the tumor.
There is a specific method of preparation for this operation - depulpation of teeth whose root system is in the area of the cyst.
Cystectomy is performed under general anesthesia, which not only relieves pain but also exsanguinate the operating field. Then the following measures are performed:
To prevent the appearance of a hematoma, a pressure bandage is applied to the operated area, which is removed after 5-7 days.
Cystectomy of a cyst of the jaw is a complex procedure that requires highly qualified surgeon. Specialists of our Clinic have such qualifications and extensive practical experience in conducting such operations.
In the future, the patient is prescribed treatment with anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and analgesic drugs.
The recovery period of soft tissues - up to 2 months, bone tissue - 5-6 months. The duration depends on the characteristics of the body and compliance with medical recommendations:
Dentists consider cystectomy to be the most effective and conservative method, which is recommended for everyone in the absence of contraindications.
Only a dentist can make the correct diagnosis and choose the optimal method of treatment, so if you have any concerns, see a doctor immediately and do not forget to undergo preventive examinations every six months.
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