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Removal of a tumor of the mouth or skin surface

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Neoplasms can occur in any type of tissue in the mouth and perioral region. Most often, formations develop on the lips, lateral surfaces of the tongue, and soft palate. Some formations cause pain or irritation, some are asymptomatic. The formation may be noticed by the patient or they can be detected only during a routine examination.

What are the differences between neoplasms of the oral cavity and skin surface?

Basically, counter neoplasms in the mouth are benign. Among them, the field of view of the maxillofacial surgeon most often includes fibroids, fibrolipomas, papillomas, hemangiomas, leukoplakia, rarely pleomorphic adenomas, herpes zoster, erythroplakia, and some other diseases. The benign processes localized on the red border of the lips (the lower lip is affected much more often than the upper), in addition to those listed above, include various cheilitis and keratopapillomas.

Squamous cell papilloma is found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity in the form of a single formation on the leg with a whitish hairy surface, sometimes resembling cauliflower. Papilloma grows slowly, painlessly. With frequent injuries, the process can become malignant.

Fibromatous and angiomatous epulis are most common on the oral mucosa. The cause is prolonged mechanical irritation. It is mainly found in patients older than 50 years. In the treatment of fibrous growths, the leading role is played by the elimination of the cause that caused their occurrence. The operation is performed when conservative treatment is ineffective.

Fibromatosis in the oral cavity is manifested on the mucous membrane of the gums in the form of its growth. It is relatively rare, observed in young and middle-aged people. The patient may see a roller-shaped enlargement of the gums that partially or completely covers the crowns of the teeth.

A granular cell tumor ("granular cellular myoblastoma") is a benign formation. It is limited, painless, sometimes lobed, elastic in consistency, can be located deep in the tissues or superficially, just below the mucosa.

Myxoma - a benign tumor of unclear nature, densely growing into adjacent tissues. Rare. The final diagnosis is made by a specialist only after a pathomorphological examination.

Hemangiomas are tufts of extra blood vessels that commonly occur in children. Most often it is congenital, and it is attributed to developmental abnormalities.

Granuloma of pregnant women - surgical treatment during pregnancy, as a rule, is not subject, except for the occurrence of functional disorders.

Leukoplakia is characterized by keratinization of the mucous membrane with the presence of inflammation. Clinically defined as a white, painless spot.

Erythroplakia is a red and flat or erased area that occurs when the oral mucosa thins.

Herpes zoster (herpes zoster) - a chronic disease of the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth, accompanied by (hardening) keratinization of the surface layer of the mucous membrane, often affects only the mucous membrane of the cheek, rarely the tongue, gums, palate, lips. At the beginning of the disease, there are formations in the form of red dots, then they become gray-white, merge with each other.

Wounds are mucocele that occurs at the bottom of the mouth (usually larger than mucous cysts found in other parts of the mouth). The source of mucin contained in the ranul is usually the sublingual gland (also sometimes the ducts of the submandibular gland).

Torus Palatinus is a solid bone neoplasm located along the midline of the hard palate.

The mandibular roller is a benign neoplasm of the lingual (lingual) part of the lower jaw (visible from the left side of the patient's mouth).

A retention cyst (mucocele, a phenomenon of a mucous cyst) is a polyp on the mucous membrane of the lip, a benign tumor consisting of a swollen cyst filled with mucus.

Ordinary warts can develop in the mouth on contact with a wart that has grown on the finger. Acute warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can also occur in the mouth during transmission of the pathogen during oral sex.

Keratoacanthomas are formations that form on the lips and other areas exposed to sunlight, such as on the face, forearms, and hands. Keratoacanthoma usually reaches a final size of 1-3 cm or more in diameter within 1-2 months, then after a few months begins to shrink and may eventually disappear without treatment.

Odontoma - a tumor is an overgrowth of cells that form teeth and look like small, deformed extra teeth. In children, they may be located in the path of eruption of a normal tooth.

Tumors of the salivary glands are mostly (75-80%) benign, slow-growing and painless. As a rule, they appear as a single soft mobile ball under the skin of normal appearance or under the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Sometimes these tumors are empty and filled with fluid, then they are solid.

Why do tumors occur in the oral cavity?

Causes or favorable factors have been identified, the presence of which increases the risk of developing such tumors in the oral cavity tenfold. Risk factors include:

  • nicotine and alcohol dependence;
  • work in production where there is contact with harmful substances;
  • acute injuries of the oral mucosa;
  • the presence of dental plaque, caries;
  • permanent mechanical impact on the oral mucosa, for example, a sharp edge of a broken tooth, poorly treated filling, or improperly installed prosthesis.

Some tumors are caused by herpes infection and the human papillomavirus. In childhood, the cause of tumors is a violation of fetal tissue development. Thus, there are retention cysts, congenital nevi (moles that occur, including on the mucous membrane of the mouth and lips).

When is a neoplasm of the mouth and skin diagnosed?

Benign tumors of small size do not cause the patient any inconvenience, so they are often found by accident during examination by a specialist.

Large tumors create significant discomfort in the form of difficulty and pain in chewing. At accidental damage or removal of new growth, bleeding is noted.

To make a preliminary diagnosis of a tumor of the oral cavity is a simple examination by a doctor. Then the following diagnostic researches are necessarily carried out:

  • tumor biopsy with the histological examination;
  • Ultrasound of the maxillofacial area to determine the size of the formation and the depth of germination;
  • X-ray of the jaws;
  • CT (MRI) of the maxillofacial region.

How is the preparation for the removal of the tumor?

Before the operation, the patient must pass a series of standard tests. Preparing isn't required. If the diagnosis is in doubt, it is possible to conduct additional research to confirm the benign formation

How to remove tumors?

Tumors and tumors do not go away on their own, so it makes no sense to expect that the solid formation on the lip or cheek will simply disappear.

Any tumor needs to be treated, and the most effective method is its surgical removal. Modern maxillofacial surgery offers a wide range of techniques for removing formations, including:

  • traditional scalpel;
  • radiofrequency surgery;
  • electrocoagulation;
  • cryodestruction;

Each of the above techniques has its own characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages.

Because each case is individual, the choice of removal method depends on the general health of the patient at the time of treatment, the type and size of the removed tumor, and the desired cosmetic result.

Electrocoagulation. If the formation does not exceed 2-3 mm in diameter, removal by electrocoagulation is most often used. The method is based on the simultaneous opening of fabrics and "cauterization" of vessels that allows to reduce the time of operation and to carry out it bloodlessly. There will be no open wound at the site of the removed seal, and a crust will form immediately. As a result, only a scar on the body will remain, almost invisible to others.

Classic tumor removal. In the presence of large tumors (more than 5 mm in diameter), as well as when in doubt about their benignity for removal, the best method of surgical removal. This is the removal of the skin with a surgical scalpel, followed by the application of a cosmetic suture. Sutures are usually applied with suture material that is absorbed. The removed tissue is sent for histological examination to clarify the diagnosis in case of skin changes. Histological examination, in this case, is a mandatory procedure that allows you to detect any changes in the cells of the body at the earliest stages. The professional work of an experienced maxillofacial surgeon avoids visible scars even when using this method. With tumors located on the lip, it is possible to perform a wedge-shaped resection due to a better cosmetic effect.

Both methods of removal of tumors are relatively safe and do not cause much discomfort to the patient, because they are performed under local anesthesia. Volumetric operations on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity are performed under anesthesia with pharyngeal tamponade.

What to expect after surgery?

The rehabilitation period takes about 4-7 days. Until complete healing of the surgical wound, it is necessary to exclude from the diet foods that can irritate the mucous membranes, as well as viscous and hot foods. It is necessary to completely refrain from smoking and alcohol. After a few days, a follow-up examination by a doctor is recommended.

How to prevent the formation of oral formations?

The timely elimination of risk factors and professional oral hygiene can prevent the occurrence of tumors. Come to our clinic for a preventive appointment with our specialists, and you will receive detailed recommendations for the prevention of oral tumors. If they are detected, painless removal will be performed at the highest level using the latest techniques.

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Our doctors
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Kalita  Irina  Nikolaevna
Pediatrician

Kalita Irina Nikolaevna

Pediatric ENT specialist

25 years of practice

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Сертифікат № QIZ 804 468 C1
Сертифікат № QIZ 804 469 C1
Сертифікат № QIZ 804 470 C1
Сертифікат № QIZ 804 471 C1

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