Laboratory diagnostics includes various examinations that allow obtaining of the most accurate clinical data on the patient’s health state. Wide range of laboratory techniques gives the possibility to detect pathological changes in a human body at early stages. The data received during laboratory diagnostics are used in diagnosing, and also are the basis for monitoring the course of the disease and prescribed treatment efficacy.
Various laboratory techniques are used for study that allows determining what does not work as it should in a human body and why it is so, detecting a pathogen in case of an infectious pathology, and predicting the efficiency of treatment with certain medications.
We perform more than 1000 various laboratory tests in many areas: general clinical, biochemical, virological, bacterial and immunological.
General clinical examinations:
Bacterial and virological:
Quality of test results depends on implementation of preparation rules. That is why it is necessary to adhere to preparation rules with the exception of cases when you have different recommendations from your doctor.
Apart from the common rules, there are important recommendations and special aspects of examination process, and it would be better to know them in advance.
Standard conditions: in the fasted state, 8 hours after the last meal, unless the doctor indicated otherwise. You can drink water.
Special conditions for certain tests:
There are various types of urine tests:
Different types of tests require different types of preparation, however, there are common recommendations:
It is important to remember: there are time limitations of 2 hours for some examinations.
Hygiene procedures of external genitalia are required before the collection of biological material.
Collection of urine to a container for the majority of tests is performed at home.
Urine can be collected as follows depending on the test:
Rules of urine collection:
For the majority of tests the urine should be delivered to a laboratory within 2 hours.
24 hours (better 48 hours) to the examination sexual encounter and use of any intravaginal agents, tampons, spermicides, vaginal douching, gynecological examination (colposcopy an/or a manual check-up) should be excluded.
Refrain from urination for 2 hours.
It is important to remember: the examination does not require additional consuming of liquids and filling of the urinary bladder.
Biological materials should be sampled before the treatment or not earlier than 21 hours after the end of the course of antimicrobial, antimycotic therapy (if your doctor has not indicated otherwise).
You should adhere to the following rules for the Pap test with liquid-based cytology:
Stool test may be performed with various goals, and there are several types of its examination:
If you use a bed pan (a night vase), it should be thoroughly washed with a sponge and soap before use, rinsed with tap water several times, poured with boiling water and cooled. For newborn babies, the stool is sampled from a diaper (a disposable diaper).
The material for the bacterial culture test for the identification of Staphylococcus (S. aureus), mycology (Candida) should be collected not earlier than 14 days after the end of the course of therapy: antimicrobial, antimycotic or probiotic therapy, unless the doctor indicated otherwise.
Do not take locally applied medications (unless the doctor indicated otherwise) within 24 hours before sampling of biological material.
Biological material for detection of feces occult blood (hemo-globin and transferin) should not be sampled under the following conditions: during the period, bleeding hemorroids, blood in urine or after significant efforts for defecation.
The examinations should not be performed within 2 weeks after gastrointestinal instrumental examinations or medical procedures that can cause mechanical abnormalities of mucous membranes (for example, colonoscopy, rectoromanoscopy, evacuation of the feces using an enema, etc.).
Other stool tests are mainly performed without any special preparation.
The stool is sampled after a spontaneous defecation, it should not contain extraneous matters such as urine, disinfectants, etc.
The stool for the test is not collected after an enema, application of rectal suppositories, taking of evacuants or colorants, castor oil or liquid paraffin, belladonna infusion, pilocarpine, iron, bismuth, barium supplements, etc.
Bile, expectorations, bronchial washing for bacteriological examinations are delivered in a sterile plastic container with a screw cap.
The material from the eye is delivered in a special container with AMIES transport medium (you should buy a separate container for each eye).
The material from the ear is delivered in a special container with AMIES transport medium.
The material from the gingival pocket is delivered in a special container with AMIES transport medium.
Sampling from an oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal cavity (bacterial swab, scrape, etc.) is performed in the fasted state or 2 hours after a meal. You should not rinse your mouth and throat, brush your teeth, smoke before the sampling. Do not use locally applied medications within 24 hours before sampling.
Materials should be collected before the treatment or not earlier than 14 hours after the end of the course of antimicrobial, antimycotic therapy, unless your doctor has not indicated otherwise.
Restrain from sexual intercourse from 2 to 7 days. In the cases when these terms are disregarded, the test result will not be correct as its indicators cannot be compared with the benchmarks.
Re-examination also requires restraining from sexual intercourse from 2 to 7 days.
You should withdraw from any alcoholic beverages, taking of sleeping pills, sedatives, strong drugs, etc.
You should avoid warming of the area around the genitalia within 24 hours (restrain from visiting sauna, bath house, taking a hot bath, using of seat heaters in a car).
The examination is performed not earlier than 2 weeks after general urinary tract diseases, acute cold-related and other diseases accompanied with the body temperature rise.
Avoid high physical activities and stresses the day before and at the day of the examination.
It is important to collect all the ejaculate (every drop of it) as:
Surgeon; Gynecologist-oncologist; Proctologist-surgeon; Ultrasound doctor
18 years of practice
Comprehensive consultation by oncologist in the clinic (ultrasonography of pleural cavities included)